MAC-layer Acknowledgment as a Tool to Detect Routing Misbehavior



Department of Electrical, Computer & IT, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran


The establishment as well as the survival of mobile ad-hoc networks relies on the cooperation of nodes for performing network operations such as routing and packet forwarding. In these networks, misbehaving nodes can severely degrade network’s performance by not cooperating in networking operations. In this paper, we study the issue of node misbehavior in packet forwarding. To counter this type of misbehavior, we propose a scheme based on the overhearing of MAC-layer acknowledgements. Our main idea centers on the exploitation of the fact that the impartial nodes within the intersection of the transmission zones of the ACK-transmitter and its successor overhear the transmitted acknowledgments by these two nodes. Therefore, if an ACK-transmitter emits an ACK for an in-transit packet, but on a timeout, no ACK is sensed from its successor, acknowledging the receipt of the packet, the misbehavior of the ACK-transmitter will be noticed by the impartial overhearing nodes and reported to the original data packet transmitter, i.e. to the node preceding the ACK-transmitter. We have conducted a series of NS-2 simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of our scheme.


[1] J.-P. Hubaux, T. Gross, J.-Y. Le Boudec, M. Vetterli, Toward self-organized mobile ad-hoc networks: the terminodes project, IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 118-124, 2001.
[2] R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, PayWord and MicroMint: Two simple micropayment schemes, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, pp. 69-87, 1997.
[3] S. Marti, T. Giuli, K. Lai, M. Baker, Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks, In Proc. of the 6th Annual ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom’00, pp. 255-265), 2000.
[4] D. Djenouri, N. Badache, A novel approach for selfish nodes detection in MANETs: proposal and Petri nets based modeling, In 8th International Conference on Telecommunications – ConTEL, 2005.
[5] A. Josang, R. Ismail, C. Boyd, A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision, Decision Support Systems, pp.618-644, 2007.
[6] S. Biswas, S. Datta, Reducing overhearing energy in 802.11 networks by low-power interface idling, In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Performance, Computing, and Communications, 2004.
[7] LAN/MAN Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, pp. 1-1233, 2007.
[8] D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, Y. Hu, The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks (DSR), IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-10.txt, 2004.
[9] L. Buttyan, J.-P. Hubaux, Nuglets: a virtual currency to stimulate cooperation in self-organized mobile ad-hoc networks, Technical Report DSC/2001/001, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, 2001.
[10] S. Zhong, J. Chen, Y.-R. Yang, Sprite: a simple, cheat-proof, credit-based system for mobile ad-hoc networks, In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’03, pp. 1987-1997, 2003.
Fig. 6. Packet delivery ratio of our scheme, 2ACK, and DSR in a 50-node network.
Fig. 7. Routing overhead of our scheme, 2ACK, and DSR in a 50 node network.
M. Keshavarz / MAC-layer Acknowledgment as a Tool to Detect Routing Misbehavior
[11] S. Buchegger, J.-Y. Le Boudec, Performance analysis of the CONFIDANT protocol, In Proc. of the 3rd ACM Int. Symp. on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing (MobiHOC’02), 2002.
[12] K. Balakrishnan, J. Deng, P. K. Varshney, TWOACK: Preventing selfishness in mobile ad hoc networks, In Proc. of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC’05), 2005.
[13] K. Liu, J. Deng, P. K. Varshney, K. Balakrishnan, An acknowledgment-based approach for the detection of routing misbehavior in MANETs, IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing, pp. 536-550, 2007.
[14] The Network Simulator - ns-2.