Fuzzy PD Cascade Controller Design for Ball and Beam System Based on an Improved ARO Technique


1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran


The ball and beam system is one of the most popular laboratory setups for control education. In this paper, we design a fuzzy PD cascade controller for a ball and beam system using Asexual Reproduction Optimization (ARO) technique. The ball & beam system consists of a servo motor, a grooved beam, and a rolling ball. This system utilizes a servo motor to control ball’s position on the beam. Changing the angle of servo motor results in the movement of the beam and, subsequently, the ball rolling on it. We designed a fuzzy PD cascade and a PD cascade controller scheme which consists of the two controller loops. The first (outer) controller and the second (inner) controller are organized in a cascaded construction.


  • Receive Date: 04 January 2011
  • Revise Date: 06 July 2011
  • Accept Date: 25 August 2011
  • First Publish Date: 01 February 2012